The paper highlights the fast changes in understanding and conceptualizing the complex topic of land governance, its multi-facetted aspects and inter-linkages to other thematic sectors. Major policy developments, such as state divestiture and increasing private investment into land, and a stronger and more influential role of Civil Society Organizations are addressed in more detail. Capacity development at all levels (e.g. academic, administrative, community, private investors) is identified to be essential for good and transparent governance in the sector. German Development Cooperation has responded to these challenges by expanding and deepening focus and volume of the international and bilateral engagement in this field of action.